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Neuroscience Abstract Although human adaptation to spaceflight has been studied for decades, little is known about its long-term effects on brain and behavior.
The present study investigated visuospatial performance and associated electrophysiological responses in astronauts before, during, and after an approximately half-year long mission to the International Space Station. Here we report findings demonstrating that cognitive performance can suffer marked decrements during spaceflight. Astronauts were slower and more error-prone on orbit than on Earth, while event-related brain potentials reflected diminished attentional resources.
Our study is the first to provide evidence for impaired performance during both the initial ~ 8 days and later ~ 50 days stages of spaceflight, without any signs of adaptation.
Results indicate restricted adaptability to spaceflight conditions and calls for new research prior to deep space explorations. Download PDF Introduction The manned space mission to reach Mars is such a complex endeavor that cannot be successful without the constant peak performance of astronauts.
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However, the integrity of the human cognitive system is endangered by both direct effects of microgravity and indirect effects associated with the spaceflight environment. Due to the lack of hydrostatic pressure, an important direct effect of microgravity is the headward fluid shift 1. It is thought to be at least partly responsible for neuro-ophthalmological symptoms, including increased intracranial pressure and visual problems, constituting the so-called Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome SANS 2.
Microgravity directly impacts the neurovestibular system as low blood pressure symptoms brain fog.
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One of the most severe related consequences is space motion sickness during the first days of spaceflight, but it may also take a toll on higher cognitive functions 3. Microgravity also has an effect on the sensory-motor system 3which is particularly important in tasks that require controlled hand movements, such as tracking and pointing arm movement tasks 4.
When executing a movement, the modified gravity condition can disturb the regular connections among efferent and afferent signals due to altered afferent input from proprioceptors 4 including the support afferentation system 5. In addition, other spaceflight-related stressors, such as the elevated CO2 level in spacecraft 6ionizing radiation 7may also impair cognitive functions.
The circadian light exposure is also altered in space 3which -taken together with other stress factors- may result in sleep problems 8. Astronauts also have to deal with high workload 39isolation, and confinement 3.
Persistent deterioration of visuospatial performance in spaceflight
The current study aimed to investigate whether prolonged exposure to space environment and related stress factors impact visuospatial functioning during spaceflight. Although the exact nature of cognitive slowing remains unknown, there are clear indications of altered cognitive processes in a specific domain: visuospatial perception is disturbed in space due to the loss of the key directional cue provided by gravity 1011121314 The visuospatial disturbances are, however, mitigated by increased reliance on preserved sources of reference, such as the head-retinal coordinates as a primary reference, and additionally the visual background information e.
Adaptability may also explain why the majority of studies found no significant deterioration in other cognitive abilities during space travel 9and why cognitive problems have never demonstrably posed a serious risk to mission success. However, small sample sizes or even single case studies 18and remarkable variations in timing and frequency of the data acquisition of previous studies limit our understanding of cognition in space.
We therefore set out to rigorously investigate cognitive performance in weightlessness by testing astronauts on tasks requiring short-term storage and processing of visuospatial information before pre-flightduring in-flightand after post-flight space travel Fig.
Taking into consideration the hipertóniás nyomáscsökkenés tünetei of previous experiments, our study design included multiple data collection points at regular time intervals. By manipulating the amount of available visual cues, we also tested whether humans increase the weight given to visual information in the absence of a stable gravitational reference.
Controlled and low blood pressure symptoms brain fog attentional processes activated during task performance were targeted with late positive event-related potentials ERP P3a and P3b 192021 of the electroencephalogram EEG.
We hypothesized that spaceflight would negatively affect visuospatial cognitive abilities, which would manifest in deteriorated behavioral performance along with altered event-related brain potentials P3a and P3b. We also assumed that the absence of gravitational reference would increase reliance on visual information. Figure 1 Schematic timeline of study design and the two tasks.
A Schedule of data collection. B During pre-flight and post-flight, participants performed the experimental tasks in a seated position, watching a computer screen through a facemask attached to a cylindrical tube.
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On orbit, subjects performed the experiment in a quasi free-floating posture, holding on to the tunnel-computer complex that floated with the subject with the facemask held securely to the head with a strap. C Stimulus presentation in the Lines task.
Participants had to indicate whether two successively presented lines Reference and Probe stimuli had the same orientation. D Stimulus presentation in the Clock task.
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Participants had to indicate whether the spatial location low blood pressure symptoms brain fog a dot Probe stimulus matched the clock time represented by a digit Reference stimulus. Half of the trials were presented in a square frame Frame condition, shown belowwhile the other half were presented inside a circular border NoFrame condition, shown above.
The square frame served to provide an oriented visual reference, as the circular tunnel excluded all external visual cues.